Thứ Tư, 15 tháng 11, 2017

What is the first patent in America? And the patent number?

BY Juna Mèo No comments

First patent issued by U.S.: First U.S. Patent Issued Today in 1790, issued in 1790.
They didn’t start using numbers until 1836, when Patent #1 was issued on July 13, 1836:

Another 108 patents issued in 1836. Patent #1 was issued to Senator John Ruggles, who happened to be chairman of the Senate Committee on Patents. While there, he put through a bill to reorganize the Patent Office, presumably knowing that one part of the bill would be that patents would now be numbered, went and invented something nominal so that, the sleaze he was, he could nab that first number. Here is the patent in full: Patent US1 - Locomotive steam-engine for rail and other roads.

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Thứ Hai, 13 tháng 11, 2017

What Goods Allowed to Be Imported into Vietnam?

BY Juna Mèo No comments

What Goods Allowed to Be Imported into Vietnam?

Foreign ownedcompanies in Vietnam wishing to import and distribute physical goods into Vietnam must comply with many regulations. It is imperative that the right to conduct import business of foreign investors and FDI companies differ from the right of Vietnamese traders having no foreign direct investment capital because trading activities are considered conditional investment area.

1.      General Principles of Imported Goods
In principle, as other countries, the importers have to follow the general rules when importing anddistributing physical goods into Vietnam:
-Not to import goods specified under the list of goods banned from import or suspended from import provided, published by Vietnam government;
-Follow the guideline or import regulations and conditions required by ministries and ministerial-level agencies. There are specific conditions for importing certain goods which the importers have to follow i.e. certain medical equipment have to be approved by the Ministry of Health; Food, cosmetics products need to be testedReceiving and transmitting telecom equipment must be inspected by Ministry of Information and Communication; Books, CDs will be checked and scanned for contents to be approved by Ministry of Cultures, Sport and Tourism; Equipment must satisfy energy, environmental regulations to be inspected and labeled by Ministry of Science and Technology…
-  Implement other relevant laws, commitments of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in treaties which it has signed or acceded to, and the roadmap announced by the Ministry of Industry and Trade.

2.      Goods Prohibited to Be Imported into Vietnam
- For the goods being banned to be imported and distributed in Vietnam, the importers have to follow strictly to avoid penalties:
-Weapons, ammunitions, explosives (excluding industrial explosives), military technical equipment.
-Assorted fireworks, sky lanterns, assorted devices causing interference to vehicle speedometers.
-Used consumer goods: Textiles and garments, footwear, clothes; Electronic appliances; Refrigerating appliances; Home electric appliances; Medical equipment; Interior decoration goods;
-Assorted publications banned from dissemination and circulation in Vietnam
-Assorted cultural publications banned from dissemination and circulation or decided to be suspended from dissemination and circulation in Vietnam.
-Right-hand drive means of transport; assorted automobiles and their spare parts which have their frame or engine numbers erased, modified or tampered with; Assorted motorcycles, special-use motorbikes and motorbikes which have their frame or engine numbers erased, modified or tampered with
-Used supplies and vehicles
- Chemicals in Annex III of the Rotterdam Convention.
-Pesticides banned from use in Vietnam.
-Wastes and scraps, refrigerating equipment using C.F.C.
-Products and materials containing asbestos of the amphibole group
-Schedule-I toxic chemicals; Chemicals on the list of banned chemicals

It is important for foreign trader wishing to establish a trading company in Vietnam to not only study the market demand in Vietnam but also the country’s law on import, export, customs law to ensure their compliance during the operation.  If doubted, the Client is suggested to reach out for help and advisory of law firm in Vietnam by qualified lawyers in the area of import, export and customs.

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Thứ Năm, 9 tháng 11, 2017

Effectiveness of a Lawsuit against Infringement of IP in Vietnam

BY Juna Mèo No comments

Should IP holders handle with the infringement through litigation?
How to handle effectively with infringement is a big concern of Intellectual Property (IP) holders. Should the IP holder file a lawsuit at Court? Is this way effective in Vietnam?  This article will give you general information about handling of intellectualproperty disputes through legal action at court in Vietnam.

Unlike many countries in the world, in case of infringement, most IP holders proceed with lawsuits in the courts (judicial authorities), while other administrative agencies only perform measures to ensure enforcement of judgments of the court.
Protection of IP rights through the litigation has many advantages over administrative measures because it guarantees the enforcement and compensation from infringers. However, in our opinions, the practice of resolving IP rights disputes in courts is not as effective as administrative measures in Vietnam.
Vietnamese laws have not given separate regulations on procedures for settling IP disputes. Therefore, the procedures for settling disputes shall be governed by the Law on Civil procedure. According to Clause 2 of Article 30 and Clause 1 of Article 34 of this law, disputes over intellectual property rights and technology transfer between individuals and organizations and all purposes of profit are commercial disputes to be trialed at the courts of the province.
According to Article 202 of the IP Law, the court could decide the following civil measures to the infringers upon IP right:
-Compelling termination of the infringement of intellectual property rights;
-Compelling public rectification and apology;
-Compelling the performance of civil obligations;
-Compelling compensation for damages;
-Compelling destruction, or distribution/ use for non-commercial purpose.
In addition, when initiating a lawsuit or during dispute at court, the IP holders may request the court to apply provisional emergency measures in order to prevent damages.
In practice, the IP holder does not proactively protect IP rights by civil measures to file a lawsuit at court. The number of cases resolved by courts is much lower than the number of cases handled by administrative measures. Specifically, the number of cases resolved by court are 177 cases from 2012 to 2015, of which 91 cases were canceled. The number of cases resolved by administrative measure is of 22,914 cases (excluding cases handled by Vietnam Customs Authority)
The reason for the above survey is that, the IP holder is less likely to resolve disputes through courts because time for dispute resolution is lengthy, the process is cumbersome and complicated, but not as effective as administrative measures. Therefore, dealing with disputes in the specialized administrations will give faster effects to the IP holders in Vietnam.

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Thứ Tư, 8 tháng 11, 2017

Dispute Resolution Through Arbitration

BY Juna Mèo IN , No comments

Dispute resolution methods are litigation, negotiation, mediation and arbitration. Handing disputes requires litigation law firm with dispute lawyers in Vietnam having experience and knowledge to provide resolutions to complex cross-border issues, commercial and civil disputes.

In the current business environment, most business agreements could contain a clause stipulating that disputes arisen must be resolved in arbitration.  For a dispute to be referred to arbitration, there must be a valid arbitration agreement in writing, either as an arbitration clause within a contract or a separate agreement.  If the agreement is included within the context of a contract, the arbitration clause is considered independent, and any modification, extension, or termination of the contract does not affect the validity of the arbitration clause. Vietnamese law allows for a written arbitration agreement to take the form in any written form, so long as the writing clearly indicates the parties’ intent to resolve any dispute via arbitration. If a dispute falls within the scope of a valid arbitration agreement, but a party attempts to initiate court proceedings, the residing court does not have jurisdiction over the matter, and must drop the case. Moreover, an arbitration agreement does not have to stipulate specific dispute matters and/or the arbitration organization authorized to resolve disputes without supplemental agreement.  Even if there is a valid arbitration agreement, Vietnamese Arbitration Law stipulates that in order for a dispute to go to arbitration, it must also fit into one of three categories:
(1) disputes arising from “commercial activities”;
(2) disputes where at least one party is engaged in commercial activities;
(3) other disputes where the law stipulates that arbitration is a permissible means of resolution.
In category (1), the term “commercial activity” is defined in Commercial Law No. 36-2005-QH11 (31 December 2005) as “activity for profit-making purposes comprising the purchase and sale of goods, provision of services, investment, commercial enhancement, and other activities for profit-making purposes.”  The types of disputes that often fall into the second category are noncommercial disputes, such as civil disputes, where at least one party to the dispute is engaged in commercial activities. However, this category does not apply in disputes between a good/service provider and a consumer. In this case, the law allows the party to choose between litigation and arbitration. Even the agreement includes a standard arbitration clause in the supply of goods or services contract, the dispute may not be arbitrated without the consumer’s consent. The final category of disputes permissible for arbitration gives legislators discretion to expand or maintain the types of disputes resolved through arbitration.  An example of a category (3) dispute is a dispute arising from investment activities governed by the Law on Investment.
Arbitration has become an extremely popular method of dispute resolution, as many businesses prefer it over the high costs of litigation.
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Thứ Năm, 2 tháng 11, 2017

How hard is it to invalidate a patent?

BY Juna Mèo No comments

The common fallacy that may be the impetus of your question is that patents are easy to get. They’re not—I’ve seen inventors spend a decade and hundreds of thousands of dollars getting one. So to invalidate someone’s life’s work will take you more than a casual search on Google. :)

What you see in the other answers is that it’s generally very difficult to invalidate a patent, and often very expensive, precisely because you basically have to re-do everything they spent years and lots of money doing to get the patent (which is very difficult) and then find a critical error or fraud in that process. And odds are, they’re geniuses, which is why they got the patent. They are probably students who have based their theses on them, large companies who are their customers and would lose umpteen millions if it were overturned, famous professors who have co-authored papers with them—not to mention a growing list of lawyers who have spent a decade learning the technologies well enough to help them get the patent.

The public relations arms of the serial infringers will tell you that patents are often sketchy and all you need to do if an inventor asks you to get a license to use his invention is to threaten to ‘turn him in’ for asking, threaten to ‘invalidate his patent.’ No, as others have said, patents are presumed valid because they normally are. All those questions of obviousness and stuff already have a very long paper-trail. And the question the original patent examiner researches isn’t whether it’s obvious to normal people, it’s whether it’s obvious to other geniuses, those ‘skilled in the art’ as it were.

It’s not that it doesn’t happen. It’s that it’s a difficult long expensive uphill battle, and it’s that the media, when they say otherwise, are mostly reporting paid PR pieces from large and beloved corporate defendants.

As with all questions of fact, you academically must kill your darlings to find the truth.

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Unemployment Insurance for Employee Unilaterally Terminating Labor Contract

BY Juna Mèo No comments

Unemployment insurance is a measure to assist workers in a market economy. In addition to providing financial support to stabilize the lives of employees during the period of unemployment, the main purpose of unemployment insurance is to help the unemployed to find a suitable and stable job, through vocational training, counseling and job referral.
When the labor contract is unilaterally terminated by the employee, the employee does not need to have a certificate from the employer that the legal termination is legal, to be eligible for Unemployment Insurance (UI).
Within 03 months since the date of termination of the labor contract, the employee who doesn’t obtain a new job and wish to receive UI only need to submit an application for unemployment insurance and one of the document following documents:
i) The labor contract or contract has expired or has been completed under a labor contract;
ii) Resignation decision;
iii) Decisive dismissal;
iv) Disciplinary decision on dismissal;
v) Notice or agreement to terminate the labor contract or contract of employment.
The unemployed shall receive a Decision on unemployment insurances within 15 working days from the filing date. From the 16th day, the unemployed shall be entitled to unemployment insurance as requested.
We at ANT Lawyers constantly follow the changes in the labour to provide legal update to clients
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Thứ Hai, 30 tháng 10, 2017

Protecting Intellectual Property Rights Abroad for Vietnam Enterprises

BY Juna Mèo IN , No comments

The development of international supply chains has become a critical success factor for big companies, and should be seen as important key for products of developing countries to gain entry into high standard market such as USA, European Countries, and Japan. However, many Vietnam companies have experienced problems in shifting their supply chain abroad as well as managed their intellectual property such as geographical indication, trademarks.
On October 24th, 2017, Vietnam Intellectual Property Association (VIPA) in cooperation with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry (VCCI), International Association for the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights (AIPPI) organized the seminar “Protecting intellectual property rights abroad for Vietnamese enterprises” to provide Vietnam companies value information for protecting their Intellectual Property right in the Fourth Industrial Revolution and global supply chain development.
All the experts have strongly recognized the important role of intellectual property protection abroad for Vietnamese enterprises and introduced:
-Introduction to the International World of Intellectual property
-Protecting a valuable asset- How to protect your Brand with Madrid
-Options to protect an invention: Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and trade Secrets
-Introduction to the international design System- Hague
-Other WIPO services, Tools and Products
-About International Association for the Protection of Intellectual Property- AIPPI (Association Internationale pour la Protection de la Propriété Intellectuelle)
Vietnam is a member of the WIPO and is a signatory to the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property. It has acceded to the Patent Cooperation Treaty and the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Marks, and in 2004 joined the Berne Convention. Therefore, the Vietnamese enterprises should file trademarks, patents or industrial designs by international systems for saving cost and managing the registration procedures effectively. However, it is suggested that the international Bureau of WIPO does not decide whether trademarks, patents or industrial designs are eligible for protection or not, and the final decisions must depend on Intellectual Property law of each country i.e. Vietnam. For differences of laws in every country and difficult techniques when preparing Intellectual Property application, applicants should find valuable assistant from Intellectual Property agent.
Our licensed agent of intellectual property practice at ANT Lawyers helps clients to protect, and profit from their intellectual assets in Vietnam.
ANT Lawyers is supported by a team of experienced patent, trademark, design attorneys with qualification and skills handling full range of legal services relating to intellectual property in Vietnam.  We have specialized in the preparation and registration of patents, trademarks and designs for our clients.
Tuan Nguyen and Thao Hoang @ ANT Lawyers

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Thứ Tư, 25 tháng 10, 2017

Non-Compete Agreement In Labor Contract

BY Juna Mèo No comments

The principle “freedom to work” is recognized and respected by the Labor Code 2012. However, this regulation may harm legitimate business interests of employers when employees, during the performance of the laborcon tract or especially after the termination of the labor contract, reveal the business or technology secrets to compete with the employers. Therefore it is necessary to create the limits on the freedom to work, for the purpose of preventing workers from revealing employers’ business or technology secrets. Law in many countries around the world has recognized “Non-Compete Agreement” as a tool to enforce security programs.
The Labor Code 2012 and sub-law documents do not mention to the definition of “Non Compete Agreement”, but make the provision that: “When an employee performs a job which is directly related to business or technology secrets as prescribed by law, the employer may reach a written agreement with the employees on the content and duration of protection of business or technology secrets, and benefits and compensation in case of violation by the employees”.
The definition of “Non-Compete Agreement” is inferred by explaining the provisions of law and referred to the articles of legal experts. “Non-Compete Agreement” is a legal contract between an employee and an employer, for a purpose of preventing the worker from competing directly or working for a competitor during the performance of the labor contract or especially after the termination of the labor contract. Thereby, we can infer that only when employers have business or technology secrets, they have the right to make Non-Compete Agreement. Moreover, the legitimate business interests that are protected must be legal, unique, influence the maintenance, stability and development of business activities.
Analyzing the provision “Non-Compete Agreement”, we can conclude that, the employees adjusted by the “Non-Compete Agreement” is the worker who is directly involved in business or technology secrets (such as the senior managers, senior technicians and others are obliged to keep business or technology secrets). The Labor Code 2012 has regulated that the “Non-Compete Agreement” must be on text.
The provision of Non-Compete Agreement is necessary for employers to protect business or technology secrets, but it is difficult for workers to find job after the contract terminates. Therefore, Non-Compete Agreement should balance the interests between employers and employees by setting reasonable limits in time, geographic scope and particular industry or activity.
(i) For restriction on time, the Labor Code 2012 does not specify restriction period or the point of starting restriction period. This is entirely upon the parties. However, Non-Compete Agreement can not be enforced unless it specifies a reasonable restriction period. Referring to the law of some European countries (Germany, France) and Asian countries for example in China, the maximum restriction time is 02 years, to ensure that employees have conditions to find new jobs.
Moreover, it provides opportunities for employers to motivate, improve the technology and business secrets to develop. On the other hand, law in some other countries distinguishes between highly skilled workers (group 1) and unqualified employees (group 2). Spanish law is a typical example, the maximum restriction period is two years for workers in group 1 and six months for group 2.
(ii) Restriction on geographic scope is not regulated in Vietnamese law. Meanwhile, most countries such as France, China and Russia all regulate that the restriction is on the whole country. However, due to differences in society, economic and education conditions, Vietnam can hardly regulate like that. On the other hand, when making the provisions of the restrictions on geographic scope, it is necessary to base on the performance of the company, the method of production, the size of and the type of company.
(iii) For restriction on particular industry or activity, most courts tend to consider the work that employees will work in the new labor contract. Normally, if the new job is similar to the old one, it will not be approved by the court. Under the Labor Code 2012, the content of restrictions on particular industry or activity when employees enter into agreement include: (i) obligation to keep trade information confidential (business secrets, technology secrets) ; (ii) not be able to work for the competitor of former employers or to conduct his own business competing with former employers.
Labor Code in our country does not specify the scope of the restriction on particular industry or activity, it depends entirely on the will of the parties. Non-Compete Agreement can not be applied to all jobs, but only to those who hold business and technology secrets. For every type of work there will be a different range of restrictions. The scope of the restriction is not exceeding the employees’ professional capacity and ensuring the opportunity of works in the future.
The benefit that employees receive when signed the Non-compete Agreement can be the opportunity for promotion, high salary, and commendation if the Non-Compete Agreement is made while the labor contract is valid. If the Non-Compete Agreement is applied after the labor contract terminates, employees shall receive the compensation. The amount of compensation is upon the agreement of the parties and must be satisfactory with the restriction of job opportunities. There are some cases that employees may not be entitled compensation are to violate the Non-Compete Agreement or die or prison sentence.
According to the Labor Code 2012, in case of violating the non-compete contract, employees have obligation to compensate, but it does not give specific compensation amount as well as the method of compensation. In order to claim compensation, employers must demonstrate these following factors: (1) the violation of the Non-Compete Agreement; (2) actual damage (the lost revenue and profit of the employer); (3) the causal relationship between the infringement and the damage; (4) fault of the employee. The amount of compensation must correspond to the amount of lost revenue or profit. In addition, employees must return the non-owned assets that are exploited and developed to compete with former employers. Moreover, employees must repay the compensation and other benefits paid by former employers if agreed in the agreement.
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Thứ Ba, 24 tháng 10, 2017

Application of Administrative Measures to Protect Intellectual Property Rights

BY Juna Mèo IN , No comments

Since joining WTO, Vietnam has been coping to comply with the international commitments in general and intellectual property area in particular. In order to ensure fair legal environment and the benefits of intellectual property right holders, the Vietnam laws provide a number of ways in which holders can apply the following methods to protect their intellectual property rights:
Negotiation: requesting organizations, individuals committing infringement acts of intellectual property rights to terminate the infringing acts, apologize, publicly rectify and compensate damages;
Using administrative remedies: requesting the competent agencies to handle infringement acts of intellectual property rights;
Filing claim at court or arbitration center: initiating a lawsuit at a competent court or an arbitrator to protect their legitimate rights and interests;
Negotiation is often used in the first step to request the violator to stop the infringement of intellectual property rights. However, this measure is not potentially effective because it dependents on goodwill and cooperation of the violator as well as the legal basis, evidences that you can provide to demonstrate and warn of violating acts.
Relating to the dispute settlements, due to high costs, complicated procedures and extended time, this measure is not commonly selected as the best treatment.
In Vietnam, intellectual property infringement is mainly dealt with through administrative measures. Depending on their functions and responsibility, competent state management agencies deal with infringements of intellectual property rights as per request of the IP holders Currently, through the following agencies:
Inspectorate of the Ministry of Science and Technology;
Economic Police of the Ministry of Public Security and;
Market management of the Ministry of Industry and Trade.
In case of dealing with infringements of intellectual property rights in Vietnam, the holders should carry out the following steps:
1.Submission of a written request to terminate an infringement of intellectual property rights:
This step is optional to save costs for the infringed party as well as deal with the infringement on the basis of goodwill and cooperation. The infringed party should send documents, including a persuasive Cease and Desist letter and evidences, to the violator for the purpose of requesting them to terminate the violation and commit not to repeat the infringement in the future. In fact, many intellectual property right holders have reached their goals at this step providing that they can collect enough proof.
2.Requesting the competent state agencies to handle acts of infringement of intellectual property rights:
In this step, the infringed party must prove both its ownership to the intellectual property and information, evidence of the infringement by the infringing party.
The application of administrative remedies is effective handled, so it should be preferable to filling a lawsuit. After requesting the administrative agency to penalize the infringing party, the right holder still remain their right to initiate a lawsuit in court to claim of damages. Actually, the combination of administrative measures and lawsuits at court would be more effective for intellectual property right holders.

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Thứ Tư, 18 tháng 10, 2017

The Benefits of Mediation Services in Vietnam

BY Juna Mèo IN , , No comments

The process of integrating with market economy is developing strongly, which creates many opportunities for businesses to extend their operation and cooperate with international companies. As a result, dispute arising is inevitable. To coincide with benefits, especially information confidentiality under parties’ agreement, commercial mediation is one of the commercial alternative dispute resolution which is more and more popular.
Commercial mediation is a dispute resolution negotiated by parties and the mediator is the third party as an intermediary to support parties to resolve dispute under the regulations of Decree 22/2017/ND-CP on February 24th, 2017. Following the regulations, commercial mediation can be negotiated by parties before, after or at any time of dispute resolution process. By Decree 22, commercial mediation is applied in cases of a dispute between parties with at least one party practicing commercial activities or another dispute under the laws can be resolved by the commercial mediation. Moreover, participating in commercial mediation is voluntary and all the information of mediation shall be kept secret under parties’ agreement, provided that agreement’s content is legal.

Commercial mediationis becoming a popular dispute resolution because of its simple and flexible procedure, economical cost for parties. Parties have chance to choose a suitable procedure and avoid complicated legal procedure. Under the law on parties’ self-determination to choose any mediator and a place to proceed procedures, which helps parties select a mediator with professional skills on dispute resolution. Furthermore, parties could reach an agreement with good will and cooperating spirit. Both still continue to develop and protect business relationship because of parties’ benefits. Under the Decree, all the information involving dispute must be kept secret, unless parties have written agreement or current law has other regulations.
Under the law, parties are entitled to choose a mediator to resolve dispute. According to Decree 22/2017/ND-CP, commercial mediators include commercial case mediators and mediators from commercial mediation institutions selected by the parties or appointed by a commercial mediation institution at the request of disputing parties to support them to resolve dispute pursuant to regulations of this Decree. A person who wants to become a mediator must qualify conditions of Article 7 of Decree 22. Apart from general moral standards following Law on Civil, mediators must have a university or higher qualification and at least two years of working experience in their educated discipline, also mediation skills as well as legal understanding, knowledge of business and commercial practice. Instead of bringing the case to court, which parties cannot predict the result, even inextricable, choosing a mediator who is knowledgeable and experienced could help parties resolve dispute smoothly.
Pursuant to Civil Procedure Code 2015, time for resolving commercial disputes belonging to the jurisdiction of the Court could take years. Meanwhile, choosing mediation, parties take less time to resolve dispute. Moreover, dispute is absolutely resolved by parties’ agreement because in the mediating procedure, with mediator’s support, parties can show their decision on dispute resolution. Then, they can save significant cost.
Another benefit of dispute resolution is that parties decide themselves how to resolve dispute and can know the result. This is a prominent advantage of dispute resolution compared with other resolutions, which have unpredictable result. Importantly, mediation is a private procedure so that parties’ name is not revealed publicly during mediating procedure, decrease hazards to parties’ business reputation.
According to Investment Climate Advisory Services of the World Bank Group, Alternative Dispute Resolution Center Manual: A Guide for Practitioners on Establishing and Managing ADR Centers, mediating resolution has brought many benefits. For individual benefits, mediation reduces the need for enforcement proceedings to ensure one party complies with an agreement, since the parties enter into their settlement agreements consensually. For private sector benefits, mediation enhances private sector development by creating a better environment for business. It lowers the direct and indirect costs that businesses incur in enforcing contracts and resolving disputes.

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Thứ Ba, 17 tháng 10, 2017

ADR & Mediation Services in Vietnam

BY Juna Mèo IN , , No comments

A lack of awareness about the benefits of mediation leads to huge amounts of money being spent by businesses on court proceedings.” “But it is not just about financial and time costs; it’s also about relationship costs. Lengthy legal proceedings mean hundreds of thousands of broken commercial relationships,” said Arnaldo Abruzzini, Secretary General of Eurochambers.

The advantages of alternative dispute resolution processes such as commercial mediation, conciliation, and arbitration over litigation are numerous.  Disputing parties can expect to benefit from less costly and much faster process, with commercial proceedings seldom taking longer than a week, the ability to maintain amicable relationships with one another (and save face), and full confidentiality in the process. The legislative basis for mediation is noted to improve and countries, such as Vietnam, have pursued mediation reforms as a response to contemporary demands.

At ANT Lawyers we have a team of qualified mediators and arbitrators who have years of experience working with difficult situations and who will guide you through the process to reach a settlement that works for you both, financially and commercially.
Our mediators are accredited by leading organisations from Canada and USA.

ANT Lawyers ADR & Mediation Services offer mediation and conflict resolution services to assist businesses, employers, groups, organizations in resolving disputes, differences and conflict, and promote the use of ADR and Mediation through training services.
ANT Lawyers is supported by a team of experienced mediator, attorneys with qualification and skills handling full range of legal services relating to ADR & Mediation in Vietnam.
Let ANT Lawyers help your business in Vietnam.

Contact Us for ADR & Mediation Services
provided by qualified mediators and lawyers, supported by field experts
via email, office tel (+84) 24 32 23 27 71 or talk to our partner directly at + 84 912 817 823.

Thứ Sáu, 13 tháng 10, 2017

From what age a minor can apply for patent under US law?

BY Juna Mèo IN , , , , No comments

In the United States, each named inventor must execute an oath (declaration) as required by 37 Code Federal Regulations 1.63(a)(1):

(a) The inventor, or each individual who is a joint inventor of a claimed invention, in an application for patent must execute an oath or declaration directed to the application, ….
There is no minimum age for a person to sign the oath or declaration, so long as they are competent to understand what they are signing, including the claims (gasp!) and be able to appreciate the duty of disclosure to the U.S. Patent Office all information known to be material to patentability. See e.g., 37 CFR 1.63(c):

(c) A person may not execute an oath or declaration for an application unless that person has reviewed and understands the contents of the application, including the claims, and is aware of the duty to disclose to the Office all information known to the person to be material to patentability as defined in § 1.56. There is no minimum age for a person to be qualified to execute an oath or declaration, but the person must be competent to execute, i.e., understand, the document that the person is executing.
I hope this addresses your question adequately.

Best wishes for success with your invention!

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